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      長安雅集|茶源中國——紅茶味道

      發布時間:2022-07-01 13:21:28 | 來源:中國網 | 作者: | 責任編輯:劉懌藝

      茶源中國——紅茶味道

      Tea in China: A Taste of Black Tea 

      茶源中國

      紅茶味道

      Tea in China: A Taste of Black Tea

      “長安雅集”活動作為北京市海外文化交流中心重點打造的品牌項目之一,充分利用中心優勢,推動線上線下融合,打造“沉浸式”體驗,突出互動性、體驗性和趣味性,能夠極大滿足人民群眾對文化旅游生活的需求,助推北京文化中心、國際交往中心和北京國際消費中心城市建設。在未來“長安雅集”將會展現更多的非物質文化遺產,推動中國傳統文化創造性轉化、創新性發展。

      “Chang’an Elegant Gathering” is one of the key signature programs launched by Beijing Overseas Cultural Exchanges Center. Through fully leveraging the strengths of the center, the program aims to provide“immersive” online-offline experience of interactive, interesting activities to meet people’s demand for cultural tourism, making contributions to building Beijing into a cultural center, an international exchange center, and an international consumption center. In the future,“Chang’an Elegant Gathering” will display more intangible cultural heritage to advance the creative transformation and innovative development of traditional Chinese culture. 

      “長安雅集味道之旅之紅茶篇”以《茶界中國》之紅茶在世界的流轉為主線,通過體驗、品鑒、講課、分享等不同形式的集合,通過聲、光、電等科技手段,打造出了沉浸式的紅茶體驗場景,烘托紅茶悠遠的歷史與深沉的積淀,為嘉賓帶來了一場中國紅茶文化的交流盛宴。

      “Chang’an Elegant Gathering—A Taste of Black Tea”, with the global spread of black tea portrayed in the TV documentary Tea in China as the main clue, is an event combining tea experiencing, appraisal, lectures, sharing, and other activities. With the help of acoustic, lighting and electronic technologies, it created an immersive experience for participants to taste the black tea’s long history and profound culture, and presented a grand feast for guests to share China’s black tea culture.

      活動回顧

      Event Review 

      活動現場視頻

      A video of the event

      本次活動現場邀請到了《茶界中國》總導演、總制片人劉嘉和英國茶學院侍茶師、歐洲專業茶業協會會員郭文利為大家講述紅茶故事,帶領嘉賓開啟了一場用味覺品嘗紅茶的旅行。

      The event invited Liu Jia, chief director and chief producer of Tea in China, and Guo Wenli, tea master of the UK Tea Academy and member of the European Specialty Tea Association, to tell stories about black tea, enabling guests to enjoy a gustatory trip of black tea.

      活動現場陳列的各種紅茶

      Various types of black tea on display 

      活動現場

      At the event

      另外還有各國使節嘉賓,品嘗到了現場陳列的正山小種茶、閩紅、祁紅、滇紅、阿薩姆茶、大吉嶺茶、斯里蘭卡紅茶、肯尼亞紅碎茶等紅茶品類,共同感受世界各地不同產區的紅茶的魅力。

      At the event, envoys and guests from various countries tasted Lapsang Souchong, Fujian Black Tea, Keemun Black Tea, Yunnan Black Tea, Assam Tea, Darjeeling Tea, Sri Lanka Black Tea, Kenyan CTC Black Tea, and others. This enabled them to experience the charm of black tea from various parts of the world. 

      關于紅茶

      About Black Tea 

      紅茶是世界上產區最廣﹑產量最多、貿易量最大、消費量最大的茶類。茶葉的故鄉是中國,紅茶的發源地也在中國,中國生產紅茶已有300多年歷史。

      Black tea is the most produced, traded and consumed tea with the largest number of producing areas around the world. China is the birthplace of tea, as well as the cradle of black tea. The history of black tea can be traced back more than 300 years in China. 

      “紅茶”一名,最早出現在明代劉基的《多能事鄙》一書中,明代朱升的茶詩《茗理》介紹了紅茶制法。紅茶的生產起源在15世紀前后,但是確切的創制年代至今尚難定論。起源于福建省崇安首創的小種紅茶制法,是歷史上最早的一種紅茶。

      The name“Hong Cha” (black tea) first appeared in Duo Neng Bi Shi (Miscellaneous Techniques in Daily Life) by Liu Ji of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). In his poem“Philosophy of Tea”, Zhu Sheng of the Ming Dynasty illustrated how to make black tea. The production of black tea originated around the 15th century, and when it exactly appeared remains a mystery. The Souchong black tea originating in Chong’an, Fujian Province, is known as the earliest black tea in the world. 

      紅茶與綠茶的最大區別在于加工的過程中多了一道發酵工序(小種紅茶又增一道過紅鍋工序)。紅茶的品質特點是紅湯紅葉,就是鮮葉經過發酵,原先是無色的多酚類物質氧化后,形成紅茶色素所致。

      The biggest difference between black tea and green tea is that black tea involves fermentation (and an additional pot-firing procedure for Souchong black tea). Black tea features red leaves and red soup. This is because colorless polyphenols in fresh tea leaves are oxidated in the process of fermentation, thus generating red color. 

      中國紅茶的工藝流程

      Making Process of Chinese Black Tea

      中國紅茶屬全發酵茶類,以茶樹的一芽二葉或三葉為原料,經過萎凋、揉捻、發酵,最后進行干燥處理而制成的茶葉,在發酵過程中茶葉的多酚類物質經氧化,生成茶黃素和茶紅素等成分,從而形成了紅湯紅葉,香甜味醇的品質特征,故稱紅茶。

      Chinese black tea is a kind of fully fermented tea. It has“one bud and two leaves” or“one bud and two leaves” of tea plants as the raw materials, which are made into tea leaves after procedures such as withering, rolling, fermenting, and drying. In the process of fermentation, polyphenols in fresh tea leaves are oxidated, generating yellow and red colors. For this reason, black tea features red leaves and red soup, fragrant aroma, and sweet taste. 

      紅茶加工工藝過程

      Steps to Make Black Tea 

      萎凋

      Withering 

      將新鮮的茶葉經過一段時間失水,使梗葉成萎蔫凋謝狀態,這是紅茶初制的第一道工序。經過萎凋,可適當蒸發水分,葉片柔軟,韌性增強,便于造形。

      Fresh tea leaves are withered after a certain period of natural drying. This is the first step to make black tea. With water evaporated, withered tea leaves become soft and resilient, making them easy to be further shaped. 

      揉捻 

      Rolling 

      紅茶在揉捻過程中會成形并增進色香味濃度,同時,由于葉細胞被破壞,便于在酶的作用下進行必要的氧化,有利于發酵的順利進行。

      Through rolling, the scent and taste of black tea are intensified. Besides, the cells of tea leaves are broken to facilitate the process of fermentation through oxidation by enzymes. 

      發酵

      Fermenting 

      發酵是紅茶制作的獨特階段,經過發酵,葉色由綠變紅,形成紅茶紅葉紅湯的品質特點。

      Fermenting is a distinctive procedure for making black tea. After fermentation, tea leaves turn from green to red, so that soaked black tea features red leaves and red soup. 

      干燥

      Drying 

      干燥是將發酵好的茶坯,采用高溫烘焙,迅速蒸發水分,達到保質干度的過程。

      Drying refers to baking fermented tea leaves under high temperature to evaporate water quickly and facilitate storage. 

      紅茶的工藝劃分

      Categorization of Black Tea by Making Techniques 

      紅茶按加工工藝不同可分為小種紅茶、工夫紅茶和紅碎茶三類。

      According to different making techniques, black tea is classified into Souchong black tea, Kungfu black tea, and CTC black tea. 

      小種紅茶 

      Souchong Black Tea 

      小種紅茶是福建特有的一種條形紅茶,有正山小種和外山小種之分,其中正山小種紅茶是紅茶界的鼻祖。小種為數量稀少之意,特有工序為過紅鍋,通過該過程停止茶葉發酵,從而保持茶葉的香氣。正山小種外形條索肥實,色澤烏潤,泡水后湯色橙黃透亮,香氣自然,類花果香,滋味醇厚。

      Souchong black tea is a kind of black tea unique to Fujian. It is further categorized into Lapsang Souchong and Waishan Souchong. Lapsang Souchong is dubbed the father of black tea. Souchong means“scarcity in output”. A distinctive step to make this kind of black tea is firing in a pot, which suspends the process of fermentation and makes it preserve the original aroma of tea leaves. Lapsang Souchong features long, plump shape and black luster. When soaked, the tea soup is clear and orangish, with natural scent of flower and fruit and lasting aftertaste. 

      工夫紅茶 

      Kungfu Black Tea 

      工夫紅茶是中國特有的紅茶產品,也是中國紅茶的主要類別,產制歷史悠久。既然稱之為“工夫”,可見其加工過程工序之精細。工夫紅茶以其優質的外形,馥郁的香氣和醇厚的滋味而馳名中外。其中最有名的要數安徽祁門所產的“祁紅”和云南省所產的“滇紅”。

      Kungfu black tea is a kind of black tea unique to China. As the main type of black tea in China, it boasts a long history. The name“Kungfu” derived from its exquisite, careful making process. Kungfu black tea is known both at home and abroad for its attractive shape, fragrant aroma, and strong taste. The most famous brands of Kungfu black tea are Keemun Black Tea and Yunnan Black Tea. 

      祁門工夫紅茶屬世界三大高香紅茶,典型的“祁門玫瑰花香”在國內外都有極高的知名度。滇紅工夫紅茶則采用大葉種原料制成,外形肥碩、金毫顯露、湯色紅艷明亮、滋味濃厚鮮爽、葉底紅勻。

      Keemun Black Tea produced in Qimen, Anhui Province is one of the three most famous kinds of highly-scented black tea in the world. In particular, the rose-scented Keemun Black Tea enjoys fame globally. Yunnan Black Tea, with large tea leaves as the raw material, features plump leaves with golden hair, brightly red and clear soup, strong and refreshing taste, and red, even residues after soaked. 

      紅碎茶 

      CTC Black Tea 

      我國紅碎茶生產較晚,始于本世紀的50年代后期。紅碎茶重在“碎”加工,形態呈顆粒型碎片,用沸水沖泡時茶汁浸出量大,通常用作茶包和奶茶原料。

      China didn’t begin to produce CTC black tea until the late 1950s. CTC black tea is produced with the crushing process, so it is in the form of granules. When soaked in hot water, it produces more soup. Therefore, it is typically used to make tea bags or milk tea. 

      中國紅茶的世界之路

      The Journey of Chinese Black Tea to Go Global 


      清末上海港出口的外銷茶

      Exported Tea from Shanghai Port during the Late Qing Dynasty

      紅茶于世界的歷史可追溯到17世紀西方的大航海時代,從那時起歐洲人開始從中國進口紅茶,據《清代通史》(蕭一山編)卷二:“葡荷兩國,與我國通商較早,明末崇禎十三年(1640年)紅茶(有工夫、武夷茶、小種茶、白毫等)始由荷蘭轉至英倫?!?/p>

      The global spread of black tea dated back to the Age of Discovery in the 17th century. Back then, Europeans started to import black tea from China. According to the second volume of General History of the Qing Dynasty compiled by Xiao Yishan,“Portugal and the Netherlands took the lead to trade with China. In 1640, the 13th year of the Chongzhen reign of the Ming Dynasty, black tea (including Kungfu, Wuyi, Souchong, and Pekoe tea) began to be transported to Britain via the Netherlands.”

      繼茶葉到達荷蘭后,飲茶之風很快波及到英、法、德等國。公元1637年英國首次從中國廈門運去茶葉,中國紅茶開始大量進入倫敦市場,風靡英倫三島。這一時期,隨著航海技術的發展,促使著東西方貿易往來十分頻繁,因此中國紅茶也開始傳往更遙遠的歐洲、美洲、非洲等地。

      Soon after tea was introduced into the Netherlands, tea drinking gained popularity in countries like Britain, France, and Germany. In 1637, Britain imported tea from China’s Xiamen for the first time. Later, Chinese black tea swarmed into the London market and became popular across Britain. During the period, the advancement of seafaring technology injected vitality into trade between the East and the West. Chinese black tea gradually spread farther to Europe, Americas, and Africa. 

      中國是世界茶文化發展的源頭,中國傳統紅茶因其獨特的品質和深厚的歷史底蘊,在世界的歷史長河中脫穎而出,成為了世界認識中國的一張古香四溢的芳香名片。

      China is the cradle of tea culture globally. Due to its superb quality and profound history, traditional Chinese black tea stood out in the long river of human history as a classic name card for the world to understand China. 

      持續關注“長安雅集”欄目

      將為您帶來更多中國傳統藝術體驗

      Follow“Chang’an Elegant Gathering” to experience more traditional Chinese cultural legacies

      “長安雅集”希望為更多藝術家搭建平臺,通過線上線下融合、“沉浸式”新型體驗等方式,讓藝術家有更多的展示機會,宣傳中國傳統文化,增強文化自信,講好中國故事,做好國際傳播,讓更多人了解我們國家的瑰寶。

      “Chang’an Elegant Gathering” hopes to create a platform for more artists to display their works and for more people to experience traditional Chinese culture in an immersive way both online and offline. By doing so, we strengthen our cultural confidence, tell Chinese stories to the world, facilitate international communication, and let more people around the world to learn about China’s natural treasures. 

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