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      吉慶生肖 | 虎頭帽——繡出古今父母的愛與寄托

      發布時間:2022-07-01 13:22:15 | 來源:中國網 | 作者: | 責任編輯:劉懌藝

      吉慶生肖 |虎頭帽——繡出古今父母的愛與寄托

      Chinese Zodiac Stories|Tiger-head Hats: A Carrier of Parental Love

      全球吉慶生肖設計大賽

      Global Chinese Zodiac Design Competition

      全球吉慶生肖設計大賽是由北京市文化和旅游局聯合中央美術學院共同主辦,北京市海外文化交流中心承辦的旨在宣傳和推廣中國生肖文化的大型賽事和推廣活動。自2014年舉辦以來,已連續舉辦8屆,累計收到來自海內外設計作品20000余件,獲獎作品300余件。參加作品征集的累計來自國內各地及海外30余個國家和地區的兩萬名設計師參與了大賽。

      The Global Chinese Zodiac Design Competition, sponsored by the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Culture and Tourism and the Central Academy of Fine Arts and organized by the Beijing Overseas Cultural Exchanges Center, is a large-scale event to publicize and promote China’s zodiac culture. Since its inauguration in 2014, eight editions of the event have been held, receiving a total of over 20,000 entries from both home and abroad, of which over 300 won prizes at the competition. The event has attracted some 20,000 designers from more than 30 countries and regions to participate. 

      “吉慶年年——壬寅虎年生肖設計線上虛擬展廳”

      已經正式上線與大家見面了

      “Year of Auspice – Virtual Exhibition for Zodiac Designs of the Year of the Tiger” has gone online. 

      掃碼觀展

      Scan to enjoy the exhibition

      “吉慶年年——壬寅虎年生肖設計展”展出了全球吉慶生肖設計大賽(壬寅虎年)的全部獲獎作品,并特別邀請了12位當代藝術家創作的13件生肖藝術品展出。

      “Year of Auspice – Virtual Exhibition for Zodiac Designs of the Year of the Tiger”displays all prize winners at the Global Chinese Zodiac Design Competition 2022 (the Year of the Tiger), as well as 13 zodiac artworks by 12 contemporary artists. 

      展廳內作品展示

      Works on display

      在參觀展覽的時候大家不難發現,很多參賽作品的設計理念背后還有著很深刻的中國傳統文化故事,比如本期我們要講述的這幅以“虎頭帽”為靈感的作品:

      At the exhibition, visitors can easily find that the design ideas of many works were inspired by stories of traditional Chinese culture, such as the tiger-head hat we talk about here. 

      2022全球吉慶生肖設計大賽

      (壬寅虎年)

      產品設計一等獎

      《虎頭帽相關設計》

      Global Chinese Zodiac Design Competition 2022 (the Year of the Tiger)

      First Prize for Product Design

      “Tiger-head Hat and Relevant Designs”

      【設計說明】

      Description 

      以原有的虎頭帽造型為基礎,結合現有的設計趨勢,對虎頭帽進行了再設計。再設計后的虎頭帽整體的造型和配色更加可愛、素雅,沒有采用過于鮮艷的顏色,在裝飾方面沒有采用過于復雜的花紋,對其進行了簡化,容易被人接受。但整體上仍然保留了虎頭帽的特征,對其眼睛、鼻子、牙齒進行強調。材料以布料為主,毛球部分則以毛線為主。圍嘴的設計來自古代的虔心祈禱通過老虎紋樣傳承到了如今。通過對傳統衣飾上老虎紋樣的收集和再設計,將這種母親對孩子健康成長的美好祝愿賦予在兒童產品——圍兜上,延續紋樣中所蘊含的美好祝愿和期盼。

      The designer redesigned a traditional tiger-head hat by introducing modern elements, making the work more adorable and elegant in terms of shape and color. Instead of bright colors and complicated decorative patterns, this simple design style makes it easier to be accepted. Generally, it retains the features of traditional tiger-head hat and highlights elements such as the eyes, nose, and teeth. With cloth as the main material, the work adopts wool to make the hairballs. The bib inherits the ancient tiger-heart pattern. Through collection and redesign of traditional tiger patterns, the designer conveys the mother’s good wish for healthy growth of her child with this bib, as a continuity of the auspicious connotations of those traditional patterns. 

      中國傳統文化民間藝術

      虎頭帽

      Tiger-head Hats: Traditional Chinese Folk Craft 

      虎頭帽主要分為兩種,一種是古代武士所戴的虎頭形頭盔,第二種是清末民初兒童所帶的虎頭形帽子。

      In the past, tiger-head headwear fell into two categories: tiger-head helmets worn by ancient warriors and tiger-head hats popular among children in the late Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and the early Republic of China period (1912-1949). 

      武士虎頭帽

      Tiger-head Helmets for Warriors 


      三彩虎頭盔武士俑,出土于西安洪慶

      This tri-color terracotta warrior wearing a tiger-head helmet was unearthed in Hongqing, Xi’an. 

      隋代時期,以帶虎頭盔、著明光鎧的武士俑形式在墓葬中保留下來,證明帶虎頭盔的武士形象開始出現在世俗文化中。

      During the Sui Dynasty (581-618), terracotta warriors wearing tiger-head helmets and bright armors were often used as burial objects. This indicates that warriors with tiger-head helmets began to appear in popular culture at that time. 

      到了唐朝,虎頭帽武士俑在西安、洛陽等地多有出土。唐太宗愛將尉遲敬德墓出土了彩繪虎頭帽武士俑、將軍俑,可見武士虎頭帽至此已經發展到極盛。

      Many terracotta warriors with tiger-head helmets have been unearthed from Tang Dynasty (618-907) tombs in Xi’an, Luoyang, and other places. Terracotta warriors and generals wearing tiger-head helmets were found in the tomb of Yuchi Jingde, a favored general of Tang Emperor Li Shimin. This proves that terracotta warriors with tiger-head helmets flourished in the Tang period. 

      兒童虎頭帽

      Tiger-head Hats for Kids 

      現如今常提及的虎頭帽多指兒童虎頭帽,上古時期的崇虎之風,在歷經了數千年縱橫交錯的動物崇拜、圖騰崇拜、祖先崇拜、神靈崇拜階段后,在世俗化的過程中,逐漸沉淀為了中華民族內心深處的民間虎俗信仰,其影響遍及人類生活的方方面面。當民間虎俗信仰作用于衣飾上,便產生了我國最具代表性的傳統童飾——兒童虎飾,它是在民間虎俗信仰的產物,也是古代人類智慧的結晶,我國歷代勞動人民借兒童虎飾表達著對美好生活的憧憬與希望。

      Nowadays, tiger-head hats mainly refers to headwear with tiger-head patterns for children. The tiger had been a totem worshipped by Chinese ancestors since remote antiquity. Over millennia, after enduring the phases of animal worship, totem worship, ancestral worship, and deity worship, the tiger worship gradually evolved into a folk belief embedded in the hearts of Chinese people, with its influence penetrating into every aspect of human life. As the belief integrated with clothing, it turned into the most representative tiger patterns on kids’ clothes. Tiger-head hats are a fruit of folk tiger belief and a crystallization of ancient Chinese wisdom, which represent laboring people’s aspiration for a better life. 

      清末照片,戴虎頭帽的幼兒

      An infant wearing a tiger-head hat in the late Qing Dynasty. 

      以老虎為形象的虎頭帽,是中國民間兒童服飾中比較典型的一種童帽樣式。它與虎頭鞋、虎圍嘴、虎面肚兜等成為兒童服裝中重要的組成部分,具有鮮明的特色,這些以虎為形象的兒童服飾寓意深遠,深受中國傳統虎文化因素的影響。

      Tiger-head hats are a typical kind of folk caps for kids in China. Alongside tiger-head shoes and tiger bibs, they constitute integral parts of traditional Chinese children’s clothes. Known for distinctive designs, those children’s clothes featuring tiger patterns are deeply influenced by traditional Chinese tiger culture. 

      虎頭帽的歷史淵源

      Origins of Tiger-head Hats


      唐代虎頭帽襁褓陶俑

      出土于陜西西安東郊韓森寨唐墓

      A terracotta swaddled infant wearing a tiger-head hat, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from a tomb at Hansen Fortress in the eastern suburb of Xi’an, Shaanxi 

      在西安東郊韓森寨唐墓出土的一件唐代虎頭帽襁褓陶俑,是嬰兒頭戴虎頭帽最早的實物例證。俑高10cm,此嬰兒俑頭戴虎頭帽,面龐豐滿,內著衫,外裹襁褓,前身系有三條結帶,腳部用布包裹系緊。

      The terracotta swaddled infant wearing a tiger-head hat, unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb at Hansen Fortress in the eastern suburb of Xi’an, is the earliest evidence ever found for kids’ tiger-head hats in China. With a height of 10cm, the terracotta swaddled infant wears a tiger-head hat and a skirt and features a plump face. The swaddle is tied with three ropes, with the infant’s feet tightly wrapped. 

      但是在宋元明清時期關于兒童虎頭帽的文獻記載和考古發掘文物并不多,由此可以推測兒童虎頭帽應該是始于唐朝的,但是并未在接下來的朝代里盛行。直到上個世紀初期,戰爭頻發,社會動亂,這個時期的孩子們成活率低,人們為了寄托于猛虎之運來庇佑孩子遠離邪魔,虎頭帽才重新回到了大眾的生活當中,逐漸盛行起來。

      However, there are only few historical documents and cultural relics about kids’ tiger-head hats dating back to the Song (960-1279), Yuan (1271-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing dynasties. It is conjectured that tiger-head hats originated in the Tang Dynasty but didn’t gain popularity in the following dynasties. In the early 20th century, frequent wars resulted in social turbulence, and the survival rate of newborns was low. Thus, people used the tiger patterns to protect their children from the evil, so that tiger-head hats gradually became popular in daily life. 

      虎頭帽的象征意義

      Symbolism of Tiger-head Hats

      其實虎頭帽的基本功能就是在冬日里給孩子保暖用,主要是在象征意義上顯得更為突出。古代中國家長借虎的勇猛強悍之意,用或華麗的絲綢錦緞或樸素的棉麻織布,用鮮艷的顏色繡出既威猛又憨厚的小老虎,表達了對孩子的深愛,希望孩子能夠平安幸福,遠離疾病,健康成長。

      In fact, the basic function of tiger-head hats is to keep children warm in winter, but such hats have distinctive symbolic meaning. The tiger is a symbol of power and strength. In ancient China, parents embroiders fierce and lively tiger patterns on gorgeous silk or simple cotton and linen fabrics to express their love for children, in hopes that such tiger patterns could protect their kids from dangers and diseases and make them safe, happy and healthy.

      持續關注“吉慶生肖”欄目

      為您帶來更多中國傳統生肖文化故事

      Please follow our program“Chinese Zodiac Stories”

      帶著文化自覺和文化自信,全球吉慶生肖設計大賽旨在延伸春節和生肖文化內涵,以創新、時尚、國際化的表達方式,講好中國故事,推廣中華優秀文化,增進世界對中國生肖文化的理解和共鳴。之后,本欄目也將繼續為您講述生肖設計大賽作品背后的文化故事,敬請期待。

      With cultural consciousness and cultural confidence, the Global Chinese Zodiac Design Competition aims to carry forward cultural connotations of the Spring Festival and Chinese zodiac culture, and tell Chinese stories and spread fine Chinese culture in an innovative, fashionable and internationalized way, so as to promote global understanding and resonance of Chinese zodiac culture. Please stay tuned, and we will tell you stories behind more works at the design competition. 

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